Communicable disease is a type of disease that is infectious since the agent of the disease may be spread from the infected host to another. Some diseases are passed on by direct or indirect contact with the sick persons or with their defecations. Most infections are spread through close proximity because the causative microorganisms are airborne; that is, they can be expelled from the mouth and nose of an ill person and inhaled by any person in the vicinity. Such diseases include scarlet fever, diphtheria, mumps, measles, whooping cough, smallpox and influenza. Some communicable diseases spread indirectly, usually through contaminated water or food, example: typhoid, dysentery, cholera, etc. Still, many other infections are introduced into the body via insect or animal carriers, example: rabies, encephalitis, malaria, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, etc.
Some communicable organisms need particular circumstances for their transmission, e.g., injury in the presence of infected dirt or soil in tetanus, sexual contact in gonorrhea and syphilis, infected transfusion blood or medical instruments in serum hepatitis and at times in malaria. In the case of tuberculosis, infection may be transmitted in many ways – by contract, through food or sharing utensils, and by the air. For a disease like AIDS, there are a number of circumstances that will transfer the infection; each encompasses the introduction of a contaminant into the bloodstream.
Decrease the risk of infecting yourself and others by following the subsequent tips:
- Wash your hands frequently: This is particularly important before and after cooking meals, before eating food and after using the toilet.
- Get vaccinated against a range of diseases: Keep your recommended vaccinations up-to-date. Immunization can significantly reduce your possibility of contracting several diseases.
- Use antibiotics prudently: Take antibiotics only when recommended. Take all the recommended doses of your antibiotic, even if you start to feel better before you have finished the course of medication.
- Stay at home if signs and symptoms of an infection exist: Don’t go to class or work if you are vomiting, have diarrhea or are feeling feverish.
- Disinfect the critical zones in your dwelling: These points include the bathroom and kitchen — two places that can have a higher concentration of infectious agents.
- Be smart in preparing meals: Keep kitchen surfaces and other counters clean while preparing food. Moreover, refrigerate the leftovers quickly. Don’t let cooked foods remain at room temperature for a long duration of time.
- Avoid sharing personal items: Use your own comb, razor blade, towel, and a toothbrush. Avoid sharing dining utensils or drinking glasses.
- Do safer sex: Use condoms while doing sex to avoid sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Get tested for STDs, and have your mate get tested or, abstain altogether.
- Travel intelligently: Don’t fly when you are unwell. With so many passengers confined to such a small space, you may infect other travelers in the plane. And your tour won’t be easy, either. Depending on where your trips take you, talk to a medical practitioner about any specific immunizations you may require.
With proper precautions and a little common sense, you can evade infectious diseases and their spread.